Monday, 25 June 2018

Distribution of drought tolerant maize seeds for evaluation and adoption by maize farmers of the southwestern Nigeria in the face of climate change

by Dr. Abimbola  Oluwaranti, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Cohort 2 CIRCLE Visiting Fellow

Dr Oluwaranti was awarded funding to carry out activities as part of the CIRCLE Research Uptake Fund. She successfully distributed drought tolerant maize seeds to farmers in South-Western Nigeria, and delivered training on how to plant and maintain the crops for optimum yield. Here, she shares her thoughts on the activity.

Background information and Meeting with maize farmers
The main focus of my CIRCLE research was to develop drought tolerant maize varieties adaptable to the effects of climate change. On returning to my Home Institution after the CIRCLE Fellowship in 2017, I met with maize farmers in four locations of the South-Western Nigeria to determine accessibility to drought tolerant maize seeds. My research group subsequently delivered training for five farmers in each location on how to carry out their maize planting and other agronomic practices for optimum yield of the drought tolerant maize seeds. 

Purchase and Distribution of Drought Tolerant Maize Seeds, Herbicides and Fertilizers.
Based on the twenty trained maize farmers, 3kg of drought tolerant maize seeds were purchased for each of the maize farmers for planting in the later part of the late season (3rd week of September of 2017), which is usually characterized by terminal drought in these locations. For optimum performance of these drought tolerant maize seeds, the twenty maize farmers were also given 1 litre each of pre-emergence herbicide to prevent weed growth at the seedling and vegetative growth stages. After planting, the maize farms were visited by me and my program assistant of the Research Uptake Plan before distributing one 50kg of NPK fertilizer to each of the twenty maize farmers. Some of the pictures taken during the purchase and distribution of the seeds, herbicides and fertilizers are as shown below.

Growth and harvesting of the drought tolerant maize 
As predicted, the rain stopped as from the 3rd week of September in all of these farms’ locations, due to the ability of the drought tolerant maize seeds to tolerate the marginal rainfall conditions, the maize plants were able to withstand the water stress. The maize ears were also well filled compared to the susceptible drought maize seeds that the farmers used to plant despite the water stress on them as shown in the pictures below:

Adoption of the drought tolerant maize seeds by the maize farmers.
The maize farmers were convinced with the good performance of the maize seeds, hence the easy adoption of the maize seeds by the maize farmers for subsequent planting in the different locations of Southwestern Nigeria to enhance food security in the Sub-region of the country.

Monday, 18 June 2018

Dr. Afiukwa's Research Uptake Activity

by Dr Celestine Afiukwa, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria
Cohort 1 CIRCLE Visiting Fellow

Dr Afiukwa was awarded funding to carry out activities as part of the CIRCLE Research Uptake Fund. He successfully organised a meeting with major stakeholders in rice production in Ebonyi State, including rural rice farmers and members of the Ebonyi State Ministry of Agriculture. Dr Afiukwa shares details of the event below.

Dr Afiukwa posing with the Commissioner for Agric, VC's Rep, CIRCLE Coordinator in EBSU (Prof Ogunji) and others

The event was a huge success and a very interesting one. I, Dr. Afiukwa Celestine Azubuike of the Department of Biotechnology in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Nigeria and a Cohort 1 CVF, worked on the topic “Screening rice varieties and landraces cultivated in Nigeria for SSR markers uniquely linked to drought resistant traits for accelerated rice breeding for drought resistance in Nigeria” at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. I was awarded a grant by the CIRCLE programme to share the research findings with relevant stakeholders in Ebonyi State for possible uptake. The uptake activity was designed to bring stakeholders in Ebonyi State Ministry of Agriculture, rice farmers from at least ten (10) Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State, rice researchers/breeders and the Management/relevant members of staff of the University.

The Activity
The event was held between 22nd - 23rd May 2018 in Ebonyi State University and was well attended. Four staff members of Ebonyi State Ministry of Agriculture took part in the meeting, including the Commissioner for Agriculture himself, Hon. Ikechukwu Nwobo, the Permanent Secretary and Heads of Department in the Ministry.

A total of fifty (50) rice farmers were originally selected and invited from ten LGAs of the state for the event, but sixty-two (62) educated farmers attended including a Catholic Priest (Rev. Fr. Peter Azi) and a traditional ruler (HRH Eze Akam Alo) who was my school principal during my secondary school years. Two rice researchers and many members of the Ebonyi State University community also attended. The event was declared open by the Vice Chancellor of the University represented by the University’s Director of academic Planning, Prof. P. E. Nwakpu who disclosed the Vice Chancellors appreciation of CIRCLE and ACU’s supports for EBSU. The CIRCLE Coordinator in EBSU, Prof. Dr. Johnny Ogunji, did the welcome remarks and gave an overview of the event. The program featured;
  1. A keynote speech by the Commissioner for Agriculture on the topic “The prospect of Rice production in Nigeria’s food security: the case of Ebonyi State” during which he highlighted the State Government’s efforts at enhancing rice production in the State and to become a leading exporter of rice in Nigeria. The Commissioner appreciated the programme and expressed the Government’s willingness to support researches that could impact positively on rice production.

  2. A presentation by the Guest Speaker and my CVF Supervisor, Prof. Julius O. Faluyi of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, on the topic “Drought stress as a major constraint to rice production"

  3. A second presentation by the Dean of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management in Ebonyi State University and the LOC Chairperson, Prof. Happiness O. Oselebe, who spoke on the topic “Drought Stress in Ebonyi State: Is it Real?”

  4. A third presentation by me, the CVF and CIRCLE Research Uptake Grantee, Dr. Celestine A. Afiukwa, who presented the findings of my CIRCLE research titled “Drought Tolerant Rice Accessions and Landraces Cultivated in Nigeria and Molecular Markers for its Identification - Towards Molecular Breeding”.

  5. A final session for questions, answers and discussion.
Group photograph with the VC's Rep, the Commissioner & the participants

Dr Afiukwa making his presentation
Dr. C.V. Nnamani (Cohort 2 CVF) reading the guest speaker's citation (Prof. Faluyi)

In the presentations, Prof. Faluyi carefully educated the farmers and the participants on the meaning and implications of this soil water shortage stress (drought) on rice growth and productivity at various stages of the plant life. Having been made to appreciate the meaning and implications of drought stress, Prof. Oselebe in her presentation engaged the farmers in an interactive discussion during which many of them testified that drought stress is real in Ebonyi State and narrated their experiences and losses already recorded. Thereafter, I presented the findings of my CIRCLE research which further clarified the farmers on the effects of drought stress on rice and introduced the identified drought tolerant accessions to the farmers (IJ02, IJ09, IK-FS and IK-PS). My presentation also introduced to the rice researchers/breeders five molecular markers that suggested that these four rice accessions are identical to FARO 11 which is a known drought tolerant rice variety and explained to them how this technology (molecular marker-assisted selection) works to enhance breeding success.

A cross section of the participants
Communiqué Raised
The farmers were very appreciative of the program and together we made the following suggestions to government and the University;
  1. This kind of training/program that brought relevant stakeholders in agriculture (the policy makers or Government, researchers and farmers) is helpful and should be continued.
  2. Ebonyi State Government and the University should endeavor to establish a rice research institute to foster collaboration among the Government, rice researchers and rice farmers in solving problems affecting rice production in the area. The farmers lamented on the losses they suffer as a result of challenges from erratic climate and insect pests and diseases attacks.

A rice researcher, Dr Ogah, making a contribution

Monday, 11 June 2018

My experience on the CIRCLE programme

Dr Sandra Ofori, University of Port Harcourt Nigeria
Cohort 3 CIRCLE Visiting Fellow

Dr Sandra Ofori spent her fellowship year at the University of Ghana. After settling back into her home institution, she reflects on her time on the CIRCLE Programme.

How I felt about getting the fellowship
When I got the offer for the fellowship, I was excited. A little apprehensive but still excited. One year away from home to work with and learn from experts in the field of climate change while getting funds to do your own research felt almost too good to be true. Naturally I worried about some things. What the new working environment will be like? What I would do with my small children at home? What I would do about the on-going projects I had at work etc. Anyway, I decided to keep an open mind and soak-in the totality of the experience.

Introductory visit to one of the community chiefs where we went “empty handed” with just our ethical approval letter. From far left- community liaison, Chief, myself, research assistant.

My study
My background is in preventive cardiology. My interest lies in evaluating the underlying risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the factors that influence a person’s risk for developing CVD is the environment and air pollution. The fellowship stipulated that one’s area of research should focus on climate change, so it was interesting for me to formulate a study that would meet that brief. After consultation with my mentor, I came up with a study titled “Indoor air pollution and its relationship to CVD and its risk factors in a rural community in Southern Nigeria”. The rationale behind this was that sometimes when we talk about climate change, the lay person might not be able to relate to it. But if we can show that some human practices such as indiscriminate wood harvesting for domestic purposes not only degrades the environment by contributing to deforestation, but its improper combustion contributes to air pollution and more importantly negatively affects human health, maybe we can get people to sit up and take notice! Therefore, by studying the effects on cardiovascular health, preventive health physicians can work with climate change scientists towards our common goal of protecting health and the climate.

Conducting the study
One important thing I learnt during the induction workshop that was held in Nairobi in February 2017, was the importance of research uptake. The research one does has to translate to actual change in the community therefore, it is vital to identify early on who the relevant stakeholders are and carry them along throughout the study period. 

Me scanning carotid arteries of participants using a portable ultrasound machine.

After the intended study was approved by my supervisor at my host institution, I travelled back to Nigeria to get the relevant equipment, constitute a research team, train them and head into the field. We held sensitization meetings with the various heads of the communities we planned to carry out the research in. We also had to collaborate with the local health authorities and staff of the primary health facilities in the communities. I learnt some valuable lessons during this period one of which was that you do not head into a village to see the chief empty handed! Anyway, we were able to carry out the research as planned with only a few modifications along the way.

Preliminary analysis of the research data showed that the use of biomass fuels compared to cleaner fuel sources was associated with increased levels of air pollutants and markers of increased CVD risk (increased blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness). We organized a research uptake activity in one of the communities where all the stakeholders in all three communities were in attendance. We discussed the implications of our findings. The participants were engaged and asked important questions. For instance, a woman asked me about what I now expected them to do, having come into their community to tell them that an age-old practice (cooking with firewood) is not only harming their environment but also their health. This was even more relevant especially as the cost of cleaner fuels was so high. Before I could answer, another participant responded by saying that at least they could educate their women to cook in better ventilated kitchens or in completely outdoor areas as that would reduce the amounts of pollutants they inhale. That response was met with wide acceptance. In addition, the head of the women’s group asked that the result of the study be shared with government authorities as it may make them more likely to fund the acquisition of more efficient stoves which they can use to more efficiently burn wood for cooking. 

Outdoor kitchen with the logs of wood to be used for cooking

Women and little children most exposed to pollutants released during combustion of biomass

Support from CIRCLE
The support from CIRCLE was fantastic. Not only were emails and queries answered promptly, the funds were released on time and I had the opportunity to attend a workshop organized by CIRCLE at the University of Lagos. That workshop was invaluable especially because some of the talks were given by members of previous cohorts who shared their first-hand experience in all aspects of the fellowship.

A cross-section of the participants (representatives of the three rural communities) during one of the research uptake activities. Sitting in the front row with me are the community chiefs.
Overall feedback
The training and experience I gained during my fellowship year is invaluable. I have taken back positive attributes I observed in my host institution back to my home institution. One of the more notable ones centres around the open-door policy that is practiced by my supervisor Professor Julius Fobil in his department. It made it easier for his research fellows to get guidance and I observed how many mistakes were averted at an early stage and just how overall more pleasant the work environment was. Prof Fobil was amazing during my stay in Ghana and I owe a lot of gratitude to him for helping me complete my work within the stipulated time.

One thing I would advise anyone taking up research would be to take time during the planning stage. Do not rush into the field to collect data. If I could do it all again that is the one thing I would change.

Wednesday, 30 May 2018

CIRCLE programme granted one-year extension

The ACU's work supporting early career researchers specialising in climate change in sub-Saharan Africa has been boosted, with a one-year extension for the CIRCLE – or Climate Impacts Research Capacity and Leadership Enhancement – programmeThis funding will enhance professional development support for emerging researchers in universities across Africa.

Success to date
Since 2014 the ACU and African Academy of Sciences (AAS) have been working in partnership to develop the skills of early career African researchers, increase their research output and boost the impact of their research within their communities and beyond.
To date, 97 early career researchers from 10 countries across sub-Saharan Africa have benefited from supervised research fellowships to study the impacts of climate change. These Fellows carried out crucial multi-disciplinary research on strategic approaches to coping with the effects of climate change in fields such as water, energy, agriculture, political economy and health and livelihoods.
Beyond support for individuals, the institutional strengthening programme (ISP) element of the CIRCLE programme has successfully supported participating universities to develop a coordinated and strategic approach to supporting their early career researchers. Through the ISP, successful universities were awarded funding to run strategic events and training programmes, focusing on embedding good practice in their institutions.
More information
An independent review of CIRCLE (undertaken in 2017) praised the programme, but noted that more time and extra funding would enable the ISP to become embedded within participating institutions, allowing CIRCLE to demonstrate measurable and sustainable change.
Over the next 12 months, the CIRCLE programme will focus on building upon the successes to date within the institutional strengthening programme (ISP) and implementing a comprehensive monitoring framework to measure the impact of related activities within each institution. This will in turn support all our returning CIRCLE Visiting Fellows (CVFs), as well as their peers, by ensuring that their institutions offer an increasingly supportive environment in which to build successful and high-impact research careers.
Visit for further information about the programme.
Please contact for further information on the programme extension. For any further queries, please contact 
This post was originally published on the ACU website. Click here to view the original article.

Wednesday, 8 November 2017

Kenyan Policy Makers Dialogue on Gender and Social Inclusion in the Climate-Smart Agriculture Strategy: Linking International and National Policy

By Catherine Mungai and Caroline Bosire, from the International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya
Cohort 1 and Cohort 3 (resp.) CIRCLE Visiting Fellows

Kenya has made great headway in developing policies and strategies to respond to climate change across different sectors; most notably in agriculture. The agricultural sector is the driving force of Kenya’s economy and is also one of the sectors most sensitive to the impacts of climate change. The agricultural sector has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, therefore necessitating the identification of measures through which the sector can mitigate climate change. Introduced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is one such approach which aims to sustainably improve agricultural productivity, increase farmers’ resilience, reduce and/or remove greenhouse gas emissions, and support the achievement of food-security and development goals. To this end, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya has developed a CSA Strategy which will guide the implementation of the country's Nationally Determined Contribution for the agriculture sector.  

Catherine Mungai (CIRCLE Cohort 1 fellow) presents her results to policy makers for their input and feedback

Having received Research Uptake funding from CIRCLE, CIRCLE Cohort 1 Fellow Catherine Mungai organised an informative session where she shared findings from her CIRCLE funded research: ‘Uptake of Climate-Smart Agriculture Through a Gendered Intersectionality Lens: Experiences from Western Kenya. The meeting was held at the National Climate Change Resource Centre (NCCRC) and was organized together with the National Gender and Equality Commission (NGEC) and the Climate Change Directorate in the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR). Having NGEC on board was essential as the mission of the commission is to effectively and efficiently promote gender equality and freedom from discrimination of all persons in Kenya. The commission also spearheads the development of the gender submissions for Kenya to the UNFCCC and ensures that gender is mainstreamed from national to county level. Thirty participants including policy makers from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, researchers from the CGIAR and NGO representatives participated in the meeting.

For policy makers, the results of the study demonstrate the need to consider gender and social inclusion in the development and implementation of CSA policies and programmes in order to ensure equitable development. The study provides evidence on why policy development and implementation agencies need to ensure that gender issues are addressed from conception of policies through to implementation. The presentation was timely and instrumental in supporting the development of action plans for the implementation of CSA at national and county level. Mungai’s research findings emphasize the need for context specific CSA technologies and practices which take into consideration social and cultural factors. The presentation was also tailored to generate feedback to be used in developing a policy brief.

Participants at the policy round table held at the National Climate Change Resource Center, Nairobi, Kenya 

There was great interest in the work and very valuable feedback from the various participants. One important message that came across was the need to clearly target the policy brief recommendations to either the policy makers at the national level or the implementers at the lower levels, which would include the county government and other institutions. The meeting also included discussions on preparation of a national gender position statement for the upcoming 23rd Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 23) to be held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November. The presentation therefore served as a case study to demonstrate the scope of policy development from global, regional, national and local levels. The case study also demonstrated how research can be integrated into the policy process.

Tuesday, 17 October 2017

CIRCLE at the ACU Developing the Next Generation of Researchers workshop

By Verity Buckley - CIRCLE Programme Officer

In July 2017, I attended the ACUs Developing the Next Generation of Researchers workshop. Hosted by the University of Lagos, the workshop explored innovative approaches to academic mentoring and career development for emerging researchers. I was not only looking forward to the content of the event, but also the opportunity to meet with some of the CIRCLE Visiting Fellows (CVFs) who were helping to facilitate the programme. Eight CVFs were scheduled to deliver sessions on areas such as mentoring, research cooperation, professional development and the role of the researcher in a global research environment. The CVFs were well suited to deliver these sessions, having made substantial achievements and progress in their careers since completing their CIRCLE fellowship, despite facing a number of challenges.

The CIRCLE Fellows and NextGen Organising Committee

Researchers face a range of obstacles throughout their careers, particularly during the early stages. The importance of immediately taking responsibility for one’s own development was highlighted throughout the workshop – solely relying on an institution to provide opportunities can be risky and participants were encouraged to look for other ways of building their experience. Their contribution to the wider “research effort” was discussed, as well as the importance of considering the impact that research can have on local and global issues. It was stressed that researchers must view themselves as part of a wider international research movement.

The establishment of a Professional Development Plan (PDP) can be a critical step in continuous professional development. Commitment to an action plan helps the researcher to progress, and the creation of milestones and goals can help them to keep track of their progress. As well as advice on attitudes and personal development, the use of constructive tools and approaches to the PDP were explored, including the importance of writing SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timebound) objectives and finding ways of providing evidence to demonstrate progress.

Prof. Ogundipe, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academics & Research) addressing participants

Many academics ultimately strive to become effective researchers and global leaders in their field. During the workshop, participants proposed and discussed various tactics that would help the researcher towards professional leadership. These included research uptake, mobile research and utilisation of technology and communication for networking and dissemination, as well as the importance of learning from role models within the workplace and wider academic fields. Role models can come in many forms, but within the academic research environment these are most likely to appear in the form of mentors. Researchers may find that they take on the role as mentor, as well as mentee. During the workshop, the CVFs offered personal anecdotes on their experiences as mentors, as well as professional tips and advice. Utilising the experiences of mentors could be critical in planning career development within an institution. Senior members of staff and personal managers could potentially give advice and support to their mentees, providing important guidance in seeking promotion or research opportunities.

CIRCLE Fellow Catherine Nnamani delivers a session

Nevertheless, finding time for development opportunities amidst a heavy workload within a research department can be difficult, especially for those who take on more administrative and teaching responsibilities at growing or overstretched institutions. The CVFs had ample experience as both mentees and mentors, and facilitated excellent discussions. The various debates that arose during the workshops were very thought provoking, but specific issues were highlighted as being particularly acute in Nigeria such as the lack of international networks and opportunities for collaboration and the growth of younger institutions struggling to build the capacity of their overstretched members of staff. Each participant had their own unique experience to contribute, and their innovative ways of overcoming their obstacles were inspirational for all that attended.

After an intensive 3 days, the workshop drew to a close. Not only had the participants developed tools to further establish their academic careers, but they had managed to create networks and potential routes through to future collaboration. As the participants filed out of the lecture hall, the atmosphere was bubbling over with anticipation (and not only due to the tea and biscuits that were waiting outside).

It was a pleasure to attend the workshop, and a wonderful opportunity to meet the CVFs and workshop participants. Make sure you keep an eye on the blog as we will be featuring CVFs profiles in the following posts.

Tuesday, 8 August 2017

CIRCLE Institutional Case Study: MOUAU

By  Prof. Phillippa Ojimelukwe, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU), Nigeria

When I saw the advertisement for the CIRCLE programme, I had little confidence that we would succeed in becoming a Home institution. I was uncertain we would be able to compete favourably with other well-established institutions; I also thought that the funders would be sceptical of lesser known institutions. Thankfully my fears were unfounded and the CIRCLE programme has been a revolutionary experience for Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. We have benefitted both from the fellowship programme (with four fellows selected from MOUA) and the Institutional Strengthening Programme (ISP).  

The ISP has been transformative for our institution. We started with a detailed analysis of our institutional gaps and weaknesses. We aligned this with our university’s mandate - to lead the frontiers of research in agriculture for national development in a sustainable manner and to train highly rated graduates in agricultural disciplines equipped with entrepreneurship skills. 

The gap analysis was a real “eye opener” for us and helped us to identify and prioritise a number of areas that we wanted to address. We prioritised our needs and focused on the following areas for our action plan:
  • Developing an induction programme for new staff;
  • Creating a formal researcher's forum;
  • Improving the structure of our career development and continuing professional development frameworks;
  • Developing line management and research management training for research managers in the university;
  • Creating a formal mentoring programme;
  • Establishing a work ethics and a research ethics committee;
  • Improving poor connectivity and low bandwidth;
  • Developing a Researcher Development Framework (RDF) lens, to establish priorities for researcher support within our institution.
Induction programme banner

We formulated our action plan and started working with the university management to implement the actions. Despite financial constraints, we have been able to successfully implement a number of initiatives. In October 2016 we conducted a maiden induction of new staff at the university with the generous support of university management. The Directorate of Research instituted a formal mentoring scheme in September, 2015 and is monitoring publications (PUB); work life balance (W/L); attendance to training and conferences (C/T); efforts at writing of proposals (PRO); and personal improvement (PI) of the mentees. A major source of challenge to the mentees is frustrations over unsuccessful attempts at proposals, publications, conference and training grants as well as poor internet access. Another key challenge is establishing a healthy work-life balance. This scheme has been made sustainable because at each monitoring date, new mentors and mentees are recruited. New mentees establish their own “purpose road map” and are familiarised with the Researcher Development framework as a tool to help them navigate their career pathway. During a meeting held in May 2017, mentees agreed to hold monthly meetings to improve their use of the RDF planner, learn about new scientific skills and opportunities and discuss their professional development. These monthly meetings will seek to maintain the momentum of career and professional development for the early career researchers in the university. 

Induction registration

Staff induction

Staff induction

Other aspects of the ISP were integrated into a policy document endorsed by a specially convened council committee of professors and presented to the senate.  The senate has studied and adopted this paper and we are set for its implementation. In addition to the induction and mentoring programmes we have carved out a career development unit and a human resource unit from the existing registry. Personnel in the registry have received training in the functions of HR management and career development. In the longer-term we plan to develop a fully-fledged Human Resource and Career Development Centre. The university has also established a work ethics committee and a Directorate of Research, which is expected to raise a memo on the constitution of a university Research Ethics Committee.  Although funding remains a daunting challenge, we continue to make efforts in-house to progress with a worthwhile objective. 

All of our efforts have been assisted by the input of CIRCLE through their series of online webinars, dedicated consultancy, networking activities and, critically, through the workshops, which have provided enormous capacity building support to senior staff at MOUAU. At the most recent workshop for mentors and supervisors we used the sessions with John Morton to identify research gaps in the field of climate change as well as ways of more effectively conducting research into climate change through inter-disciplinary research teams. There were also some enlightening discussions around dissemination and uptake of research through publication and engagement with stakeholder and policy-makers. The Vitae led sessions of the workshop focussed more on the skills needed to develop and nurture the next generation of researchers. Various dimensions were covered from effective proposal-writing skills to good practice in supervision and mentoring, we also had some session on how to use the RDF to build Researcher Development plans and conduct a research environment audit to examine and shape the organisational culture in place to empower researchers.  

Monthly RDF meetings

The experience of participating in CIRCLE has been an effective and systematic capacity building mechanism to incorporate global best practices into our institutions. Our unreserved thanks to DFID, ACU, AAS, Greenwich University and VITAE!

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Residue Retention Practises for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change Mitigation in Ghana.

By Dr. (Mrs.) Owoade, Folasade Mary, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Host Institution: Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

The relationship between climate change and soil carbon resources is of key concern to human society. The adverse effect of climatic warming on the global soil environment has emerged and aroused extensive attention in the world. Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric–climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will therefore have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. With proper management, soils have the potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Soil’s usefulness as a carbon sink and drawdown solution is essential, based on global estimates of historic carbon stocks and projections of rising emissions. To ensure safe levels of atmospheric carbon, and to mitigate climate change, efforts to sequester carbon will be necessary.

Residue retention practices for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. 

Land use conversion and agricultural activities have been reported to both directly and indirectly produce 30% of total anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of best management practices must be integral to any strategy of mitigating climate change. In Ghana and Africa at large, many households depend on land for their livelihoods, mostly through agriculture. Research has shown that low soil fertility is often the major constraint to crop production. Crop residues are not only a primary substrate for the replenishment of soil organic matter, but they also serve as an important source of plant nutrients. Crop residues play important roles in nutrient recycling, erosion control, and the maintenance of soil physical and chemical properties when left in the field after harvest. Many possibilities for using crop residues are ignored by farmers and not many attempt to recover from the field, store and improve the quality of these valuable resources.

Dr. (Mrs) Owoade interviewing a female maize farmer at Kotokoli village, Yilo Krobo, Eastern Region, Ghana.

Against the above background, this study attempts to provide answers to the following questions:

  • What are the management requirements to replenish the carbon stocks of the soil in Greater Accra and Eastern regions of Ghana?
  • What is the socio-economic framework within which small-scale land users could be encouraged to participate in soil carbon sequestration schemes for climate change mitigation in the area?

The carbon sequestration potential of tropical land use systems has been a subject of interest over the last decade. Estimation by the IPCC shows that a tropical forest holds about 135 t CO2e / ha in the vegetative biomass and 138 t CO2e / ha in the soil to a depth of 1m. In the case of tropical savannah, biomass carbon and soil carbon constitutes 33 and 130 t/ ha respectively. However, rapid biomass carbon loss occurs in the tropics, due to deforestation and vegetation burning. Since the turn of the last century, Africa has lost about 85% of its original forest. Nigeria has lost 4% of its forest per year while Ghana has lost 2% per year. This loss constitutes not only a loss of the photosynthetic carbon sink but also burning releases the biomas CO2 back into atmosphere. Soil degradation, also results in large CO2 emissions. Soil degradation is rapid in the tropics due to high temperature and adequate soil moisture conditions. Estimates of soil carbon storage and losses are limited in the humid and semi- humid zones of Nigeria and Ghana. Furthermore, the potential for carbon storage, loss and replenishment would depend on factors such as soil texture, residue management, land use and cropping practices among others.

Dr. (Mrs) Owoade educating farmers on residue retention for carbon sequestration in Asesewa, Upper Manya, Eastern Region, Ghana

Residue retention practices of some farmers (plantations and orchards, forests, maize and cassava farmers) with different tillage and soil management practices in Greater Accra and Eastern regions of Ghana were examined and sought to assess their willingness to adopt residue retention practices.

Dr. (Mrs) Owoade interviewing farmers before soil sampling at New Somanya, Yilo Krobo, Eastern Region, Ghana

Farmers, representing a general population sample of the Greater Accra and Eastern regions of Ghana were interviewed and soil samples collected from their farms. The survey asked a representative sample about their socio-economic characteristics, physiography, soil management practices, residue retention practices, and their willingness to participate in activities that would curb global warming.

About 30% of the respondents use inorganic fertilizer, 5% use manure, but the most common tillage practice among the farmers is slash and burn. The majority of the respondents believe that residue retention practices will increase their production cost and labour and therefore need government support to adopt any residue retention practices for climate mitigation purposes. Only 20% are willing to adopt this practice free of charge while 80% were willing if only there is external funding and until they see the benefits.
Small–scale land users should be encouraged to participate in soil carbon sequestration schemes for climate change mitigation. Stakeholders, policy makers, NGO’s and decision makers should design and implement the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exploration and possible adoption in the future. It is evident that farmers need enlightment and government support for a residue retention programme in Ghana.

Dr. (Mrs) Owoade with extension officers at Deidenma-Pokuase, Ga-West Municipal, Greater Accra, Ghana

Dr. (Mrs) Owoade, with Extension Officer, Research  and some farmers in Asesewa, Upper Manya, Eastern Region.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Research Uptake Discourse on Women, Entrepreneurship Development and Climate Change

By Dr Catherine Akinbami, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

In order to have a holistic approach, the economic, social and environmental issues which are interdependent aspects of a society must be considered within a unified framework so as to promote human welfare, especially in the rural areas. The consideration of the social dimension of climate change is important in order to ensure that human rights are not compromised as climate change impacts the fundamental security, lives, health and livelihoods of people, especially the most vulnerable. Also, greater consideration of the social dimension can enhance the effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation as well as the policies needed to drive them.  

Dr Akinbami in front of the event banner

On the 20th of April, stakeholders gathered at the Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria for a Policy Discourse on women, entrepreneurship development and climate change. The stakeholders comprised of policy makers from ministries (such as Women Affairs, Environment and Habitat, Agriculture and Natural Resources) working directly with women, scholars from academia, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), media practitioners and community leaders. The policy discourse was a means to disseminate my CIRCLE research findings to the policy makers and intimate them on the challenges facing the rural women livelihoods as a result of the impact of climate change, possible entrepreneurship options in climate change, challenges and the adaptive strategies to improve the socio-economic wellbeing of the women in rural areas. The event was an avenue to bring together policy makers and researchers in understanding the need for synergy. It also helped to present reality of the rural women to the policy maker as their livelihoods are being affected by climate change, in order to make them start taking necessary steps in addressing the problems.

Panellists during the discussion session

Participants at the event

The Keynote address titled ‘Bridging the Gap between Research and the Policy-making Process’ was delivered by a seasoned scientist, climate change expert, who is a fellow of the  Nigerian Academy of Science and a Pro-chancellor of a Private University in Nigeria, Prof, A.M.A. Imevbore; Prof (Mrs) J.E. Olawoye’s (Department of Rural Sociology, UI - My supervisor) presentation on ‘Women Development and Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies’ was delivered by Prof (Mrs) E.T. Owoaje, (Department of Community Health, UI) who also chaired the panel discussion. The programme was anchored by a climate change and energy management expert, Prof. J-F.K. Akinbami. Other distinguished participants came from the Ministry of Women Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Environment and Habitat; various NGOs, representatives from local government. Altogether, 32 participants were in attendance, including some students.
The round table discussions focused on the following questions:
  • What NGOs can do to assist in this era of climate change to aid women’s aclimitization
  • What can be done in term of modification?
  • What can be done about using hybrid seeds especially for women in primary production?
  • Based on the research discourse, what can be adopted; and how can gender issues be addressed based on climate change?
  • The next steps the researcher will take to actually affect the lives of the rural women
The keynote speaker also brought out reasons why the relationship between policy and research is not working out.

Why is Research Ignored?
According to Stone, research is often ignored because of the following reasons:
  • inadequate supply of, and access to, relevant information
  • researchers’ poor comprehension of policy process and unrealistic recommendations
  • ineffective communication of research
  • ignorance or anti-intellectualism of politicians or bureaucrats
  • inadequate capacity among policy makers
  • politicisation of research, using it selectively to legitimise decisions
  • gaps in understanding between researchers, policy makers and public
  • time lag between dissemination of research and impact on policy

Other key points raised during the course of the event included:

  • ‘It is a wonderful topic that concerns all of us, as it is going to be of benefits especially to us, the policy makers’. -  Chairman  Opening speech
  • ‘The facilitators in this forum will enlighten and broaden our minds on the issue that the researcher has researched into and it will remind us (policy makers) the need to do something fast so that the women who are in the vulnerable group would be helped’. - Chairman Opening speech
  • ‘This programme is timely and in the right direction. The Ministry has been looking for who to help the women in the field of climate change’. Chairman
  • ‘Women are more in farming, but the challenges are enormous.  As a matter of fact, the women appear to be on their own with no institutional or government support’. NGO Representative
  • ‘It must be noted that research must be aimed at improving the Human Development Index (HDI) if not it will remain purely an academic exercise’. Keynote speaker
A fact sheet on Women, Entrepreneurship Development and Climate Change was developed in both English and Yoruba languages and a radio presentation on Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (Amuludun FM 99.1) was also made in Yoruba language which is the indigenous language of the study areas. The purpose was to create awareness about the impact of climate change and educate women in general, and rural women in particular, about the challenges and entrepreneurship opportunities in climate change impact.

A major follow-on activity under development from the discussions is for the women in the communities to initiate a kick-off project which is climate smart. This will open and expose the women to the opportunities in climate change challenges and the use of resources around them. The project will also accommodate provision of some equipment that will assist to practice livelihoods in an ecofriendly manner and training which will be an avenue to train on the use of the equipment, hybrid seedlings and other entrepreneurship options. Outcome of the proposed project: help to engage the women more in various entrepreneurial activities; reducing their idle moments and poverty rate. Above all, this proposed ‘Research Uptake Climate Entrepreneurship Project’ will be a model for policy makers to adopt in rural areas.

I use this medium to acknowledge the Department for International Development (DfID) and Association of commonwealth Universities (ACU) under the Climate Impact Research Capacity and Leadership Enhancement (CIRCLE) programme for funding and necessary support.

For further details on the discussions that took place during the event or the proposed follow-on project, please contact Dr Akinbami at Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.